Does size matter? A new finding shows evidence of a link between the relative length of a man’s index and ring fingers and a way to predict the length of his penis. Asian scientists have found that the ratio between the second and fourth digits on a man’s right hand seemed to correlate to the length of his flaccid and stretched penis, with a lower index to ring finger length ratio indicating a longer penis.
Over the past decade, the correlation of digit ratio with sexual behavior and other aspects of reproductive biology have been well documented and there is a growing list of traits with links to digit ratio, although the associations are less well established.
The key to this relationship may lie in the womb. In Ho Choi of Gacheon University Gil Hospital in Incheon explains:
“During the fetal period, high concentrations of testosterone lead to high testicular activity, resulting in a lower digit ratio. In the present study, patients with a lower digit ratio tended to have a longer stretched penile length.”
Choi and colleagues compared the digit ratios of 144 Korean men aged 20 and older who were being treated for urological surgery. Researchers measured the index and ring fingers of each man’s right hand and compared the ratio to the length of each man’s fully stretched, flaccid penis (the latter data obtained under anesthesia).
In a journal commentary, Denise Brooks McQuade of Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, N.Y., said the study results “provide convincing support for a relationship between digit ratio and penile length.” She added that the findings might have real value for research into clinical conditions linked to developmental issues in men.
Penile cancer is a type of cancer that affects the penis and other male genitalia. It is rare and often easy to treat with an early diagnosis.
Read on to learn more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of penile cancer. What is penile cancer? For men, penile cancer accounts for less than 1 percent of all cancer cases.
Penile cancer is a rare disease in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), penile cancer affects about 1 in every 100,000 males. This type of cancer accounts for less than 1 percent of all cancer cases in men.
In 2018, the ACS estimate that doctors will diagnose approximately 2,320 new cases and that penile cancer will cause about 380 deaths.
Penile cancer develops on or in the penis, which consists of many different types of cell. The type of cell that cancer affects will help determine the best course of treatment for a person.
Regardless of the type of penile cancer, it will usually present on the skin of the penis initially.
The most common type of penile cancer appears in the squamous cells, which are flat skin cells. This type of cancer typically starts in the glands at the tip of the penis or on the foreskin of uncircumcised men.
Squamous cell carcinoma tends to spread slowly, and it is usually easy to treat when doctors catch it in the early stages.
Less common types of penile cancer include:
Verrucous carcinoma: A growth that resembles a large genital wart. Carcinoma in situ (CIS): The earliest stage of squamous cell cancer that has not yet penetrated deeper into the penis. Melanoma: A type of skin cancer that can form on the penis. Basal cell carcinoma: Another type of skin cancer that can develop on the penis. Adenocarcinoma: A rare type of cancer that forms in the sweat glands of the penis. Sarcoma: A very rare form of penile cancer that affects the connective tissue, muscles, and blood vessels in the penis.
What does penile cancer look like? Causes and risk factors
Doctors do not understand the exact causes of penile cancer, but they have identified some possible contributing factors. These include:
bodily fluids becoming trapped in the foreskin exposure to the human papillomavirus (HPV) AIDS
Some men are more at risk of developing penile cancer than others. Common risk factors include:
being over 65 years old smoking cigarettes being uncircumcised
Black spots on the scrotum may be concerning, but many of the most common causes are benign. They may require no treatment or a simple fix.
A range of conditions can cause these black spots. Obtain a professional diagnosis to ensure appropriate treatment.
In this article, we explore the conditions that cause black spots to form on the scrotum. We also describe accompanying symptoms, how a doctor will determine a diagnosis, and the treatment options available. Causes Black spots on the scrotum may have many different causes.
Black spots may form on the scrotum temporarily or permanently. The following are some of the most common causes.
Physical injury can damage small blood vessels, causing blood to pool in the tissues. This results in areas of dark, tender skin, known as bruises.
Most bruises clear up within 2 weeks.
Dark or ingrown hair follicles
After removing hair, often by waxing or shaving, new hair may appear darker than before.
If a hair in an early stage of growth becomes trapped beneath the skin, or ingrown, the resulting bump may appear as a dark or discolored spot.
Ingrown hairs can also be painful or tender and swollen.
Pimples and blackheads
These minor skin conditions are caused by mild infection or clogged pores. They are extremely common and may appear as dark spots on the scrotum.
Most pimples and blackheads are harmless. They often resolve with basic at-home care, such as good hygiene and warm compresses, within a few months.
Hyperpigmentation occurs when some areas of skin develop more pigment. This can appear as a variety of skin lesions, such as:
freckles moles sun spots stretch marks age spots
A 2013 study looked at 400 males between the ages of 3 and 91 who received medical attention for genital lesions. Of these, 85.6 percent of cases involved hyperpigmentation.
Hyperpigmentation lesions are generally harmless, and many have no symptoms beyond discoloration of the skin.
This condition causes small blood vessels to widen, resulting in non-cancerous skin lesions that may be dark red or blue.
These lesions tend to have clear edges, and most are:
1 millimeter (mm) to 8 mm in size raised in a dome-shape abnormally thick randomly distributed, when they appear on the scrotum
If these lesions cause irritation, or if a person scratches them by accident, scaling, crusting, bleeding, and blood blisters can occur.
Angiokeratoma lesions are usually harmless and have no other symptoms. However, they concern people who mistake them for symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or cancer.
The risk of developing these lesions increases greatly with age. At age 16, a boy is estimated to have a 0.6 percent chance of developing this condition on the scrotum. The risk rises to 17 percent for men aged over 70.
Penile melanosis is a rare condition that causes discolored areas of skin on the head and shaft of the penis.
These patches are dark brown and may be slightly or significantly darker than the surrounding skin on the penis.
Penile melanosis does not cause any other symptoms. The condition is not infectious or contagious, and there is no way to pass it on to other people. However, the exact cause is still unknown.
Penile melanosis is generally harmless and does not require treatment. Some people may choose to have cosmetic procedures to remove the spots, though.
In this article, learn more about penile melanosis, including the causes, associated conditions, and treatment options. What is penile melanosis? Doctors do not know what causes penile melanosis.
Penile melanosis refers to patches of brown or dark brown skin on the penis. These spots are typically large and flat, with each one appearing alone.
Melanin is one of the main pigments in the skin, and people with more melanin have a darker skin tone. Melanosis refers to a buildup of melanin.
Penile melanosis may also involve other pigment compounds in the skin, such as:
hemosiderin lipofuscin ferrous sulfate
As these pigment compounds build up, they can cause a noticeable change in the skin’s color. This hyperpigmentation appears in patches on the penis, rather than affecting the entire penis. Causes
Doctors are not sure why some people develop penile melanosis. It is simply a buildup of pigment cells within the skin, which can occur in other locations as well.
However, possible risk factors that may increase a person’s chances of developing penile melanosis include:
Age: While penile melanosis can affect people of any age, it mostly appears between the ages of 15 and 72 years. Genetics: There may be a genetic component to penile melanosis. Injuries: Previous injury to the penis may play a role, as the formation of scar tissue can lead to hyperpigmentation. Certain skin treatments: Treatment with certain drugs, such as anthralin or PUVA therapy, may increase the risk of penile melanosis.
Penile melanosis and lichen sclerosus
Penile melanosis may also have a link to another uncommon skin condition called lichen sclerosus.
Lichen sclerosus causes thin, pale patches of skin, usually in the genitals or hands. A 2017 case study of an older man found an association between the penile melanosis and lichen sclerosus on his penis.
However, this does not mean that one of these conditions causes the other. It simply suggests that there may be a link between them. Penile melanosis and cancer
Some people may worry that discolorations such as these will lead to melanoma, a form of skin cancer. Penile melanoma is very rare.
Penile melanoma may cause darker spots of skin similar to those of penile melanosis, but typically just on the head of the penis. These may grow, change color, and bleed.
When a doctor diagnoses penile melanosis, they will be sure to rule out the possibility of the lesions being cancerous. Therefore, once they have confirmed their diagnosis, this means that the lesions are not putting the person at risk of cancer.
A person may see a dermatologist at set intervals to monitor the condition and ensure that there are no signs of melanoma. There is no direct evidence that penile melanosis will lead to cancer, however.
Micropenis refers to an abnormally small penis. Micropenis is rare and hormonal or genetic issues are most often the cause. Doctors will usually diagnose and treat the condition at birth.
In this article, we look at the definition of micropenis, the symptoms and causes, and the ways a smaller-than-average penis may or may not affect sexual and other functions. What is micropenis? Hormonal issues typically cause micropenis, which is a rare condition.
Doctors diagnose micropenis when a person’s penis is 2.5 standard deviations below the average stretched length for their age and level of sexual development.
Research has estimated that the average penis size for an adult is 13.24 centimeters (cm) or 5.21 inches when stretched. For adults, doctors consider micropenis for a stretched penile length of less than 9.3 cm or 3.66 inches.
When a person has micropenis, their internal genitalia and testicles are usually normal.
Clinical sources define average and micropenis sizes for each age range, as follows: