Circumcision is the surgical removal of the removal of the foreskin, the fold of skin that covers the head of the penis.
The benefits of male circumcision include a reduced risk of urinary tract infections in childhood, a reduced risk of ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases in adulthood, protection against penile cancer, a reduced risk of cervical cancer in female sex partners, and prevention of balanitis ( inflammation of the glands), posthitis (inflammation of the foreskin) and paraphimosis (inability to return the retracted foreskin to its original location).
Complication rates following male circumcision are very low when it is performed by well equipped and trained heath care providers.
Numerous regional and global studies since the 1980s have noted a lower risk of HIV infection in circumcised men, as well as lower HIV prevalence in populations where male circumcision is common.
Several randomized controlled trials in Africa demonstrated that male circumcision reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection by 50- 60%.
Lower prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in circumcised man than in uncircumcised men.
The incidence of invasive penile cancer is significantly lower in circumcised man than in uncircumcised man, though this condition is extremely rare.